Based on a life cycle approach, we take several factors into account when we evaluate the sustainability of materials, such as land use, elimination of hazardous substances, animal welfare, energy consumption and water consumption.
Sustainable and Recycled Materials we use
The most commonly used sustainable materials are recycled polyester, recycled rubber, organic cotton, "Better Cotton", Polylactic Acid (PLA), TENCEL® (a fibre made from wood pulp), and non-mulesed wool for apparel and leather.
We source various recycled materials such as inlay soles, textiles, metals, plastics, packaging and rubber. The companies we work with that make injected plastic plates for football boots are now recycling 99% of that waste back into production. And they have also been able to increase the percentage of rubber and EVA that can be reground and reused in shoes.
We are a founding member of the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI). Not only does the BCI aim to reduce the use of pesticides, it also promotes efficient water use, crop rotation and fair working conditions. adidas committed to increasing the sourcing volumes of cotton from the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI).
In 2018, 100% of the cotton we used globally was sustainable cotton (2017: 93%) (i.e. Better Cotton or organic cotton). Our success is the result of clear target setting – both with suppliers and with internal teams who supported the sourcing of Better Cotton for our products. The adidas BCI cotton sourcing countries include Turkey, Brazil, US, Mali, Pakistan and India.
Recycled polyester (rPES) is a synthetic fiber based on postconsumer waste, such as plastic bottles and used garments. The raw material is reprocessed and spun into fibers. Using recycled polyester has many benefits over virgin polyester. It helps us to reduce our dependency on non-renewable petroleum and decreases our carbon impact when compared to conventional polyester. Polyester is the most used material in adidas products, and using more recycled polyester is one way we seek to improve our environmental footprint while still making high-performance products for the athlete.
We aim to replace all virgin polyester with recycled polyester in all adidas and Reebok products where a solution exists by 2024, and have set clear internal milestones for our product creation teams to help achieve this target.
Throughout the last years, we were using recycled polyester in more and more of our apparel and footwear, for example as main material in the uniforms of the 70,000 volunteers that helped at the London 2012 Olympic Games. In 2014, our Anthem jacket collection was made with recycled polyester. Versatile and well suited as warm-up jackets for a range of sports, Anthem jackets are used by athletes in American football, football (Real Madrid, Bayern Munich and the German national team warm up in Anthem jackets for example), handball, rugby, running and training. In total, in 2014 we used roughly 11 million yards of recycled polyester which is equivalent to 7 million adidas t-shirts.
Standard nylon is made from petroleum. Recycled nylon is made from post-industrial and post-consumer waste, including discarded industrial fishing nets that are sometimes left in the ocean.
In general, using recycled nylon has many benefits over standard nylon: it helps reduce our dependence on petroleum and allows us to discharge less waste, contributing to a reduction in toxic emissions from incinerators that would otherwise be needed for waste disposal.
As of summer 2015, more than 30% of our swimwear collection includes recycled nylon. We plan to continue increasing this number.
Our supplier ‘framas’ has developed a new sustainable material to be used in the heel counters of adidas footwear products. The heel counter is a little insert in the heel area of the shoe; it is rigid so that it supports and stabilises the wearer’s heel inside the shoe. It is not possible to see the heel counter though; it's internal and covered on both sides by material.
The new heel counter, called Framaprene® ECO, contains more than 50% recycled content made of old food packaging.
Overall, since spring/summer 2014, ‘framas’ is now producing 110 million pairs of heel counters a year for adidas, which means that each year they divert 1,500 tonnes of polystyrene waste from landfill sites.
adidas does not source raw materials from any endangered or threatened species, as defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in its red list. And our policy also prohibits using leathers from animals that have been inhumanely treated, whether these animals are wild or farmed. Click here to download our 'A-01' policy for restricted substances.
adidas uses processed leather material primarily in footwear products. Various environmental impacts occur at the different stages in the leather supply chain. For example, extended cattle ranching can cause deforestation, and tanning uses significant quantities of water and chemicals. adidas takes steps to address these impacts through active participation in the Leather Working Group (LWG) which has developed stringent standards and audit protocols benchmarked against industry best practices, and checks compliance through independent monitoring of tannery sites.
In 2017, adidas sourced more than 99% of its leather volume from non-european tanneries audited under the LWG protocol. Based on the LWG audit protocol, 97% of tanneries we sourced leather from had achieved at least Silver rating, and 95% of tanneries achieved Gold rating.
Materials we do not use
In 1998, adidas first produced its restricted substances list and nearly as long since we stopped using PVC in mainstream applications. As of 2017 more than 99% of our products are free of PFC. Our material guidelines are updated twice a year for each new season. So things have come a long way in that time. And the key to more success in the future is closer collaboration with other brands and suppliers.
adidas does not source raw materials from any endangered or threatened species, as defined by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in its red list. Our policy also prohibits using leathers from animals that have been inhumanely treated, whether these animals are wild or farmed. We do not tolerate animal testing for new product or material developments. And, where necessary, we ask for written confirmation from our licensees, in particular for the cosmetics business, that they strictly adhere to our requirements.
In 2000, we were one of the first companies in the global consumer goods sector to decide to eliminate PVC from our products. Alternatives have been found and nearly all styles in our global product range are now PVC-free. However, in a few countries, alternatives are not available so some local production of athletic footwear products still uses PVC. We remain committed to finding solutions in the longer term. In 2003, we also eliminated the usage of polyethylene chloride for having a similar environmental footprint as PVC. We are also encouraging a move to printing with phthalate-free inks. Some of our business units have made the changeover in their owned facilities and more and more of their suppliers are changing over, too.
In 2013, in the framework of the Joint Roadmap for the elimination of hazardous chemicals by 2020, we committed to phase out the use of long-chain PFCs by no later than January 1, 2015. As a further step, we have committed to and also achieved being 90% PFC free in our products as of June 15, 2014, and 99% PFC-free by no later than December 31, 2017.
By the end of 2018, we met the target to uphold our commitment of being more than 99% free of poly- and perfluorinated substances (PFCs) in our products for the fall / winter 2019 season.
The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) typically found in solvents used in our manufacturing process can – in high concentrations – cause breathing difficulties and other health problems for production workers. Therefore, for more than a decade, we have requested that our footwear suppliers significantly reduce the use of VOCs in their manufacturing. By applying innovative as well as environmentally sound bonding and priming technologies while following the adidas guidelines on the use of chemicals, our athletic footwear suppliers have been able to reduce the use of VOCs from well above 100 grams per pair
in 1999 to around 11 grams in 2018. We plan to continue our success story by further expanding the technologies that lead to VOC emissions reductions, e.g. water-based primers and reactive hot-melt adhesives.
Synthetic fibers are widely used in our industry due to their unique performance properties such as softness to the touch, elasticity, light weight, high durability and superior moisture management. Recent studies, however, show that synthetic fibers can contribute to environmental pollution, particularly through the release of microfibers into the environment and the associated risk of water contamination.
Throughout our strategic priority ‘We value water’, we recognize water is essential for life and a key resource for our industry. Microfiber pollution is a key priority for us which we are proactively working on and we recognize the importance of taking responsibility for this topic as a sporting goods company. It’s a complex challenge for our industry that does not have a single quick solution. We have established a cross-functional working group, are closely collaborating with our supply chain partners and research institutes, and are actively driving external industry working groups, including the newly formed Microfibre Consortium. In the absence of a definition for microfibers that is widely accepted across the industry, we as a company are concerned primarily with those fibers within the size range of 5millimeters down to 1 micrometer.
We have clearly defined our key focus areas:
- Production Phase: Our ambition is to manufacture our products with the minimum amount of detrimental microfiber release into the surrounding environment during material production. We are assessing shedding during production together with some of our manufacturing partners to better understand the challenge and identify viable solutions. In 2019, we are working to develop specific guidelines for our supply chain partners on mitigation actions, such as microfiber waste collection, waste handling and disposal.
- Testing: Currently there is no standardized test method available in our industry to determine shed rates of different materials and products. We are currently working with several organizations and research institutes to validate and align on a common test method which we expect to be available in 2019. This will further support us in defining key research and development priorities.
- Material Evolution: We want to create products that shed a minimum of microfibers during their life. Until a standardized test method is in place, we are cautious about taking specific actions to reduce the shedding potential beyond the existing information on labels of a garment. In 2019, we will try to better understand the factors that influence the shedding of materials based on a systematic screening approach using the standardized test method.
- Future Materials: In collaboration with our partners in academia and industry, the adidas Future team is working to develop new innovative and disruptive material solutions for textiles.
- We are founding members of The Microfibre Consortium, a federation with the goal to develop aligned and harmonized science-based tools to be implemented in the textile industry. The focus is on testing and the production phase.
- We are an associate member of the project ‘TextileMission’, a three-year project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and led by the Association of the German Sporting Goods Industry (BSI). It consists of multiple leading companies, research institutes and NGOs along the value chain. The project focuses on further root cause analysis, but also looks for innovative solutions to mitigate the issue.
- We are a partner of Fashion for Good, a global platform for innovation which convenes brands, producers, retailers, suppliers, non-profit organizations, innovators and funders united in their shared ambition to make all fashion good.
- The Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) is proactively coordinating known research projects and reports so as to avoid duplication of efforts across the industry, academia and scientific communities, and has launched a Microfibers Research Cohort — including adidas and other brands — to coordinate joint funding for research priorities in accordance with the cross-sector Microfiber Action Roadmap. OIA’s Government Affairs Team also engages with legislators at the state level to educate them about the outdoor industry’s challenges, concerns and proactive efforts.
We are actively creating awareness and contributing to finding solutions within our industry. In 2017, we participated in leading industry conferences and held multiple internal workshops and events with our suppliers. In 2018, we held a ‘Microfibre Day’ at our headquarters in Germany for our own employees and external invitees to attend. During this event, we shared the work we are doing internally and received valuable input from external stakeholders to drive the topic forward. Following on from this event, we are working toward the formation of sub-working groups which will be focused on specific areas and create industry-wide actions, potentially driven through the Microfibre Consortium.